Wisdom teeth, also known as third molars, are the last teeth to erupt in your mouth. This generally occurs between the ages of 17 and 25, a time of life that has been called the "Age of Wisdom."
Anthropologists note that the rough diet of early humans resulted in the excessive wear of their teeth. Normal drifting of the teeth to compensate for this wear ensured that space was available for most wisdom teeth to erupt by adolescence. The modern diet, which is much softer, and the popularity of orthodontic tooth straightening procedures produce a fuller dental arch, which quite commonly doesn't leave room for the wisdom teeth to erupt, thereby setting the stage for problems when the final four molars enter the mouth.
More serious problems may occur if the sac surrounding the impacted tooth becomes filled with fluid and enlarges to form a cyst. As the cyst grows it may hollow out the jaw and permanently damage adjacent teeth, the surrounding bone and nerves. Rarely, if a cyst is not treated, a tumor may develop from its walls and a more serious surgical procedure may be required to remove it.
These are the most common complications of leaving malpositioned or impacted wisdom tooth in place:
Infection of the surrounding gum tissue. This condition,pericoronitis, is most likely to occur if the tooth is partly erupted or very close to the surface.
Fluid filled cysts. These can form from remnants of tissue around the crown of the tooth, becoming large and painful.
Decay, or dental caries. The positioning of wisdom teeth makes them hard to clean and hard to repair.
How an impacted wisdom tooth is removed ?
1. The surgeon will take the x-ray to check the position and anatomy of the impacted wisdom tooth.
2. In general cases, the surgery can be carried out under local anesthesia. This completely blocks feeling from the wisdom tooth and surrounding area. You will stay awake during the operation. Or alternatively for one who needs to get several wisdom teeth removed all at once or one who has dental fear, then General anesthesia maybe need.
3. Depending on the position of the wisdom tooth, the surgeon may need to make a small cut in the gum over the tooth.
4. And then remove any bone that is covering it.
5. The surgeon mayneed to cut the tooth into poeces,to make it easier to remove.
6. The stitches are placed to reduce bleeding and immobilize the flap in order to enhance healing.
7. The surgeon will ask you to keep biting on gauze pad firmly for few hours until bleeding will stop and inform you about post-operative care.